Home > Xtend(2) > Using Xtend with Google App Engine

Using Xtend with Google App Engine

I’ve been using Xtend extensively for well over a year – ever since it came out, basically.

I love it as a Java replacement that allows me to succinctly write down my intentions without my code getting bogged down in and cluttered with syntactic noise – so much so that my Xtend code is for a significant part organized as 1-liners. The fact that you actually have closures together with a decent syntax for those is brilliant. The two forms of polymorphic dispatch allow you to cut down on your OO hierarchy in a sensible manner. Other features like single-interface matching of closures and operator overloading are the proverbial icing on the cake. The few initial misgivings I had for the language have either been fixed or I’ve found sensible ways to work around them. Over 90% of all my JVM code is in Xtend these days, the rest mostly consisting of interfaces and enumerations.

One of the things I’ve been doing is working on my own startup: Más – domain modeling in the Cloud, made easy. I host that on Google App Engine so I’ve some experience of using Xtend in that context as well. Sven Efftinge recently wrote a blog on using Google Web Toolkit with Xtend. Using Xtend in the context of GWT requires a recent version of Xtend because of the extra demands that GWT makes on Java code (which is transpiled from Xtend code) and Java types in order to ensure it’s possible to transpile to JavaScript and objects are serializable. However, when just using Xtend on the backend of a Google App Engine, you don’t need a recent version. However, you do need the “unsign” a couple of Xtend-related JAR files because otherwise the hosted/deployed server will trip over the signing meta data in them.

To use Xtend in a Google Web Application, do the following:

  1. After creating the Web Application project, create an Xtend class anywhere in the Java src/ folder.
  2. Hover over the class name to see the available quickfixes. Alternatively, use the right mouse click menu on the corresponding error in the Problems view.
  3. Invoke the “Add Xtend libs to classpath” quickfix by selecting it in the hover or by selecting the error in the Problems view, pressing Ctrl/Cmd 1 and clicking Finish.
  4. At this point, I usually edit the .classpath file to have the xtend-gen/ Java source folder and Xtend library appear after the src/ folder and App Engine SDK library entry.
  5. Locate the com.google.guava, org.eclipse.xtext.xbase.lib and org.eclipse.xtend.lib JAR files in the plugins/ folder of the Eclipse installation.
  6. Unsign these (see below) and place the unsigned versions in the war/WEB-INF/lib/ folder of the Web Applcation project.

Now, you’re all set to use Xtend in a GAE project and deploy it to the hosted server. In another post, I’ll discuss the benefits of Xtend’s rich strings in this context.

Unsigning the Xtend libs

The following (Bourne) shell script (which kinda sucks because of the use of the cd commands) will strip a JAR file of its signing meta data and create a new JAR file which has the same file name but with ‘-unsigned’ postfixed before the extension. It takes one argument: the name of the JAR file without file extension (.jar).

#!/bin/sh
unzip $1.jar -d tmp_jar/
cd tmp_jar
rm META-INF/ECLIPSE_.*
cp MANIFEST.MF tmp_MANIFEST.MF
awk '/^$/ {next} match($0, "(^Name:)|(^SHA1-Digest:)") == 0 {print $0}' tmp_MANIFEST.MF > MANIFEST.MF
# TODO  remove empty lines (1st clause isn't working...)
rm tmp_MANIFEST.MF

zip -r ../$1-unsigned.jar .
cd ..
rm -rf tmp_jar/

# Run this for the following JARs (with version and qualifier):
#    com.google.guava
#    org.eclipse.xtend.lib
#    org.eclipse.xtext.xbase.lib

Note that using the signed Xtend libs (placing them directly in war/WEB-INF/lib/) isn’t a problem for the local development server, but it is for the (remote) hosted server. It took me a while initially to figure out that the cryptic, uninformative error message in the logs (available through the dashboard) actually mean that GAE has a problem with signed JARs.

And yes, I know the unsign shell script is kind-of ugly because of the use of the cd command, but hey: what gives…

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  1. Xavi
    December 9, 2012 at 7:15 am

    What about performance and startup time?

    • Meinte Boersma
      December 9, 2012 at 10:00 am

      Xtend transpiles (/compiles) to Java source on the development machine by means of the Xtend Eclipse plug-in, so startup is the same as for regular Java. Performance should be as least as good because Xtend relies on Google Guava for much of its collection manipulation and that library uses lazy evaluation. Plus, today’s JVMs do much better optimization (and compiling to native) than you could ever do yourself so the fact that the Java code is generated doesn’t pose any problem for the performance.

  2. April 21, 2013 at 11:53 am

    I don’t know if it’s just me or if everyone else encountering issues with your
    website. It appears like some of the written text
    in your posts are running off the screen. Can someone else please comment
    and let me know if this is happening to them as well?
    This could be a issue with my internet browser because I’ve had this happen before. Many thanks

    • April 21, 2013 at 1:18 pm

      Sorry, I don’t see it happening, so it might be your browser…

  1. January 27, 2013 at 5:43 pm

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