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Ambiguitiy in Xtext grammars – part 2

September 11, 2014 Leave a comment

In this continuation of the previous instalment, we’re going to take an ambiguous grammar and resolve its ambiguity.

As an example, consider the situation that we have a (arguably slightly stupid) language involving expressions and statements, two of which are variable declaration and assignment. (Let’s assume that all other statements start off by consuming an appropriate keyword token.) So, the following is valid, Java-like syntax (SomeClass is the identifier of a class thingy defined elsewhere):

SomeClass.SomeInnerClass localVar := ...
localVar.intField := 42

Now, let’s implement a “naive” Xtext grammar fragment for this:

Variable: name=ID;

Statement: VariableDeclaration | Assignment;

VariableDeclaration: typeRef=ClassRef variable=Variable (':=' value=Expression)?;
ClassRef:            type=[Class] tail=FeatureRefTail?;

Assignment:     lhs=AssignableSite ':=' value=Expression;
AssignableSite: var=[VariableDeclaration] tail=FeatureRefTail?;

FeatureRefTail: '.' feature=[Feature] tail=FeatureRefTail?;

Here, Class and Feature are quite standard types that both have String-valued ‘name’ features and have corresponding syntax elsewhere. Expression references an expression sub language which is at least able to do integer literals. Note that a Variable is contained by a VariableDeclaration so you can refer to a variable without needing to refer to its declaration. (You can find this grammar on GitHub.)

Now, let’s run this through the Xtext generator:

error(211): ../nl.dslmeinte.xtext.ambiguity/src-gen/nl/dslmeinte/xtext/ambiguity/parser/antlr/internal/InternalMyPL.g:415:1: [fatal] rule ruleStatement has non-LL(*) decision due to recursive rule invocations reachable from alts 1,2.  Resolve by left-factoring or using syntactic predicates or using backtrack=true option.
error(211): ../nl.dslmeinte.xtext.ambiguity.ui/src-gen/nl/dslmeinte/xtext/ambiguity/ui/contentassist/antlr/internal/InternalMyPL.g:472:1: [fatal] rule rule__Statement__Alternatives has non-LL(*) decision due to recursive rule invocations reachable from alts 1,2.  Resolve by left-factoring or using syntactic predicates or using backtrack=true option.

Even though Xtext itself doesn’t warn us about any problem (upfront), ANTLR spits out two errors back at us, and flat-out refuses to generate a parser after which the Xtext generation process crashes completely. The problem is best illustrated with the example DSL proza: its first line corresponds to a token stream ID-Keyword(‘.’)-ID-Keyword(‘:=’)-… while the second line corresponds to a stream ID-Keyword(‘.’)-ID-Keyword(‘:=’)-INT(42). (Note that whitespace is usually irrelevant and therefore, typically hidden which is Xtext’s default anyway.) Both lines start with consuming an ID token and because of the k=1 lookahead, the parser doesn’t stand a chance of distinguishing the variable declaration parser rule from the assignment one: only the fourth token reveals the distinction ID vs. Keyword(‘:=’). Note that since the nesting can be arbitrarily deep, any finite lookahead wouldn’t suffice meaning that we’d have to switch on the backtracking – one could think of this as setting k=∞.

To recap the situation with the token streams in comments:

SomeClass.SomeInnerClass localVar := ...  // ID-Keyword('.')-ID-[WS]-ID-[WS]-Keyword(':=')-[WS]-...
localVar.intField := 42                   // ID-Keyword('.')-ID-[WS]-Keyword(':=')-INT(42)

So, how do we deal with this ambiguity? One answer is to left-factor(ize) the grammar – as is already suggested by the ANTLR output. The trade-off is that our grammar becomes more complicated and we might have to do some heavy lifting outside of the grammar. But that is only to be expected since the grammar deals first and foremost with the syntax – what Xtext provides extra has everything to do with inference of the Ecore meta model (to which the EMF models conform) and only marginally so with semantics, by means of the default behavior for lazily-resolved cross-references.

Analogous to the left-factorized pattern for expression grammars, we’re going to implement the lookahead manually and rewrite nodes in the parsing tree to have the appropriate type. First note that our statements always begin with an ID token which either equals a variable name or a class name. After that any number of Keyword(‘.’)-ID sequences follow (we don’t care about whitespace, comments and such for now) until we either encounter an ID-Keyword(‘:=’) sequence or a Keyword(‘:=’) token, in both cases followed by an expression of sorts.

So, the idea is to first parse the ID-(Keyword(‘.’)-ID)* token sequence (which we’ll call the head) and then rewrite the tree according to whether we encounter an ID or the Keyword(‘:=’) token first. In Xtext, there’s a distinction between parser and type rules but only type rules give us code completion through scoping out-of-the-box, so we would like to use a type rule for the head. The head starts with either a reference to a Class or to a VariableDeclaration. Unfortunately, we can’t distinguish between these two at parse level so we have to have a common super type:

HeadTarget: Class | Variable;

However, due to the way that Xtext tries to “lift” or automatically Refactor identical features (having the same name, type, etc.), we need to introduce an additional type (that’s used nowhere) to suppress the corresponding errors:

Named: Class | Variable | Attribute;

Now we can make the Head grammar rule, reusing the FeatureRefTail rule we already had:

Head: target=[HeadTarget] tail=FeatureRefTail?;

And finally, the new grammar rule to handle both Assignment and VariableDeclaration:

AssignmentOrVariableDeclaration:
  Head (
    ({VariableDeclaration.assignableSite=current} name=ID ':=' (value=Expression)?) |
    ({Assignment.lhs=current} ':=' value=Expression)
  );

This works as follows:

  1. Try to parse and construct a Head model element without actually creating a model element containing that Head;
  2. When the first step is successful, determine whether we’re in a variable declaration or an assignment by looking at the next tokens;
  3. Create a model element of the corresponding type and assign the Head instance to the right feature.

This is commonly referred to a “tree rewriting” but in the case of Xtext that’s actually slightly misleading, as no trees are rewritten. (In fact, Xtext produces models which are only trees as long as there are no unresolved references.)

To complete the example, we have to implement the scoping (which can also be found on GitHub). I’ve already covered that (with slightly different type names) in a previous blog post, but I will rephrase that here. Essentially, scoping separates into two parts:

  1. Determining the features of the type of a variable. This type is specified by the typeRef feature (of type Head) of a VariableDeclaration. This is a actually a type system computation as the Head instance in the VariableDeclaration should already be completely resolved.
  2. Determining the features of the previous element of a Head instance as possible values of the current FeatureRefTail.feature. For this we only want the “direct features” since we’re actively computing a scope.

(The scoping implementation uses a type SpecElement which is defined as a super type of Head and FeatureRefTail, but this is merely for convenience and type-safety of said implementation.)

In conclusion, we’ve rewritten an ambiguous grammar as an unambiguous one so we didn’t need to use backtracking with all its associated disadvantages: less performance, ANTLR reports no warnings about unreachable alternatives, “magic”, etc. We also found that this didn’t really complicate the grammar: it expresses intent and mechanism quite clearly and doesn’t feel like as kluge.

 

Ambiguities in Xtext grammars – part 1

August 26, 2014 1 comment

In this blog in two instalments, I’ll discuss a few common sources of ambiguity in Xtext grammars in the hopes that it will allow the reader to recognise and fix these situations when they arise. This instalment constitutes the theoretical bit, while the next one will discuss a concrete example.

By default (at least: the default for the Itemis distro) Xtext relies on ANTLR to produce a so-called LL(k) parser, where LL(k) stands for “Left-to-right Leftmost-derivation with lookahead k“, where k is a positive integer or * = ∞ – see the Wikipedia article for more information (with a definite “academic” feel, so be warned). This means that grammars which are not LL(k) yield ANTLR errors during the Xtext generation stating that certain alternatives of a decision have been switched off. These are actual errors: the generated parser quite probably does not accept the full language as implied by the grammar (disregarding the fact that it’s not actually LL(k)) because the parser doesn’t follow certain decision paths to try and parse the input. We say that this grammar is ambiguous.

Xtext and “LL(1) conflicts”

Remember that first of all that the parser tokenizes its input into a linear stream of tokens (by default: keywords, IDs, STRINGs and all kinds of white space and comments) before it parses it into an EMF model (in the case of Xtext, but into an AST for general parsers). The problem is that an Xtext grammar specifies more than just the tokenizing and parsing behavior: it also specifies cross-references whose syntax often introduce an ambiguity on the parsing level by consuming the same token (ID, by default). The second parsing phase (still completely generated by ANTLR from an ANTLR grammar) only uses information on the token type, but doesn’t use additional information, such as a symbol table it may have built up. Such a strategy wouldn’t work with forward references anyway as the parser is essentially one-pass: references are resolved lazily only after parsing. This means that we have to beware especially of language constructs which start off by consuming the same token types (such as IDs) left-to-right but whose following syntax are totally different. This is a typical example of the FIRST/FIRST conflict type for a grammar; see also the Wikipedia article. The other non-recursive conflict type is FIRST/FOLLOW and is a tad more subtle, but it can be dealt with in the same way as the FIRST/FIRST conflict: by left-factorization.

Left-recursion

A grammar is left-recursive if (and only if) it contains a parser rule which can recursively call itself without first consuming a token. A left-recursive grammar is incompatible with LL(k) tech and Xtext or ANTLR will warn you about your grammar being left-recursive: Xtext detects left-recursion at the parser rule level while ANTLR detects left-recursion at the token level. Expression languages provide excellent examples of left-recursive grammars when trying to implement them in Xtext naively. For expression languages there’s a special pattern (ultimately also based on left-factorization) to deal both with the left-recursion, the precedence levels and creating a useable expression tree at the same time: see Sven’s oft-referenced blog and two of my blogs.

Backtracking

There are several ways to deal with ambiguities, one of which is enabling backtracking in the ANTLR parser generator. To understand what backtracking does, have a look at the documentation: essentially, it introduces a recovery strategy to try other alternatives from a parser rule, even if the input already matched with one alternative based on the specified lookahead. (See also this blog for some examples of the backtracking semantics and the difference with the grammar being LL(*).) I’m not enamored of backtracking because ANTLR analysis doesn’t report any errors anymore during analysis, so while it may resolve some ambiguities, it will not warn you about other/new ones. (It also tends to cause a bit of a performance hit, unless memoization is switched on using the memoize option.) In case you do really need backtracking, you should have a good language testing strategy in place with both positive and negative tests to check whether the parser accepts the intended language.

It’s my experience that very few DSLs actually require backtracking. In fact, if your DSL does really need it, chances are that you’re actually implementing something of a GPL which you should think about twice anyway. A quite common case requiring backtracking is when your language uses the same delimiter pair for two different semantics, e.g. expression grouping and type casting in most of the C-derived languages. Using different delimiters is an obvious strategy, but you might as well think hard about why you actually need to push something as unsafe as type casting on your DSL users.

Configuring the lookahead

To manually configure the lookahead used in the ANTLR grammar generated Xtext fragment (instead of relying on ANTLR’s defaults), you’ll have to do a bit of hacking: you have to create a suitable custom implementation of such a fragment, because MWE2 doesn’t have syntax for integer literals or revert to using MWE(1) to configure that. I’ll present a good illustration of this in the worked example in the next instalment which contains nested type specifications (or “path expressions”, as I called them in an earlier blog) which can have an arbitrary nesting depth. Using left-factorization we can rewrite the grammar to be LL(1), at the cost of some extra indirection structure in the meta model and some extra effort in implementing scoping and validation.

The Dangling Else-problem

A(nother) common source of ambiguity is known as The Dangling Else-problem (see the article for a definition) which is a “true” ambiguity in the sense that it doesn’t fall in one of the LL(1) conflicts categories described above. The only way to deal with that type of ambiguity in Xtext 1.0.x is to have a language (unit) test to check whether the dangling else ends up in the correct place – “usually”, that’s as else-part for the innermost if. Note that Xtext 2.0 has (some) support for syntactic predicates which allow you to deal with this declaratively in the grammar.

Next time, a concrete, worked example!

Object algebras in Xtend

June 29, 2014 Leave a comment

I finally found/made some time to watch the InfoQ video shot during Tijs van der Storm‘s excellent presentation during the Dutch Joy of Coding conference 2014, on object algebras. Since Tijs uses Dart for his code and I’m a bit of an Xtend junkie, I couldn’t resist to port his code. Happily, this results in code that’s at least as short and readable as the Dart code, because of the use of Xtend-specific features.

Object algebras…

In my understanding, object algebras are a way to capture algebraic structures in object-oriented programming languages in a way that allows convenient extensibility in both the algebra (structure) itself as well as in the behavior/semantics of that algebra – at the same time, even.

Concretely, Tijs presents an example where he defines an initial algebra, consisting of only integer literals and + operations. This allows you to encode simple arithmetic expressions inside of the host programming language – i.e., as an internal DSL. Note that these expressions result in object trees (or ASTs, if you will). Also, they can be seen as an example of the Builder Pattern. For this initial algebra, Tijs provides the typical print and evaluation semantics. Next, he extends the algebra with multiplication and also provides the print and evaluation semantics for that.

All of this comes at a cost. In fact, two costs: a syntactical one and a combinatorial one. The syntactical cost is that “1 + 2” is encoded as “a.plus(a.lit(1), a.lit(2))” – at least in the Dart code example. Luckily, Xtend can help here – see below. The combinatorial cost (which seems to be intrinsic to object algebras) is that for every combination of algebra concept (i.c.: literal, plus operation, multiplication operation) and semantics (i.c.: print, evaluation) we need an individual class – although these can be anonymous if the language allows that.

Despite the drawbacks, object algebras do the proverbial trick in case you’re dealing with object trees/builders/ASTs in an object-oriented, statically-typed language and need extensibility, without needing to revert to the “mock extensibility” of the Visitor Pattern/double dispatch.

…in Xtend

…it looks like this. Go on, click the link – I’ll wait 🙂 Note that GitHub does not know about Xtend (yet?) so the syntax coloring is derived from Java and not entirely complete – most notably, the Xtend keywords defoverride and extension are not marked as such.

To start with the biggest win, look at lines 80 and 142. Instead of the slightly verbose “a.plus(a.lit(1), a.lit(2))” you see “lit(1) + lit(2)”. This is achieved by marking the function argument of type ExpAlg/MulAlg with the extension keyword. This has the effect that the public members of ExpAlg/MulAlg are available to the function body without needing to dereference them as “a.”. In general, Xtend’s extension mechanism is really powerful especially when used on fields in combination with dependency injection. In my opinion, it’s much better than e.g. mucking about with Scala’s implicit magic, precisely because of the explicitness of Xtend’s extension.

Another win is the use of operator overloading so we can redefine the + and * operators in the context of ExpAlg/MulAlg, even usual the actual tokens: see lines 18 and 105. Further nice features are:

  • The use of the @Data annotation on classes to promote these to Value Objects, with suitable getters, setters and constructors generated automatically. Unfortunately, the use of the @Data annotation does not play nice with anonymous classes which were introduced in Xtend 2.6. So in this case, the trade-off would be to have less explicit classes versus more code in each anonymous class. In the end, I chose to keep the code close to the Dart original.
  • No semicolons 😉
  • Parentheses are not required for no-args function calls such as constructor invocations; e.g., see lines 39, 45 and 90.
  • Nice templating using decidedly non-Groovy syntax that is less likely to require escaping and also plays nice with indentation; see e.g. line 39.

All in all, even though I liked the Dart code, I like the Xtend version more.

Addendum: now with closures

As Tijs himself pointed out on Twitter, we can also use closures to do away with classes, whether they are explicit or anonymous depending on your choice of implementation language or style. This is because closures and objects are conceptually equivalent and concretely because the Xtend compiler does three things:

  • It turns closures into anonymous classes.
  • It tries to match the type of the closure to the target type, i.e.: it can coerce to any interface or abstract class which has declared only one abstract method. In our case that’s the print and eval methods of the respective interfaces.
  • It declares all method arguments to be final to match the functional programming style. As a result, the parameters of the factory methods are effectively captured by the closure.

(Incidentally, I’ve made examples of this nature before.)

The resulting code can be found here. It completely does away with explicit and anonymous classes apart from the required factory classes, saving 40 lines of code in the process. (The problem with the @Data annotation naturally disappears with that as well.) Note that we have to make explicit that the closures take no explicit arguments, only arguments captured from the scope, by using the “[| ]” syntax (nothing before |) or else Xtend will infer an implicit argument of type Object – see e.g. line 31.

A slight drawback of the closure approach is that it not only seals the details (i.e., the properties’ values – this is a good thing) but also hides them and that it limits extensibility to behavior that can be expressed in exactly one method. E.g., to do introspection on the objects one has to define a new extension: see lines 124-. Note that this make good use of the @Data annotation after all: both the constructor and a useful toString method are generated.

Categories: DSLs, Xtend(2)

Using Xtend with Google App Engine

December 6, 2012 5 comments

I’ve been using Xtend extensively for well over a year – ever since it came out, basically.

I love it as a Java replacement that allows me to succinctly write down my intentions without my code getting bogged down in and cluttered with syntactic noise – so much so that my Xtend code is for a significant part organized as 1-liners. The fact that you actually have closures together with a decent syntax for those is brilliant. The two forms of polymorphic dispatch allow you to cut down on your OO hierarchy in a sensible manner. Other features like single-interface matching of closures and operator overloading are the proverbial icing on the cake. The few initial misgivings I had for the language have either been fixed or I’ve found sensible ways to work around them. Over 90% of all my JVM code is in Xtend these days, the rest mostly consisting of interfaces and enumerations.

One of the things I’ve been doing is working on my own startup: Más – domain modeling in the Cloud, made easy. I host that on Google App Engine so I’ve some experience of using Xtend in that context as well. Sven Efftinge recently wrote a blog on using Google Web Toolkit with Xtend. Using Xtend in the context of GWT requires a recent version of Xtend because of the extra demands that GWT makes on Java code (which is transpiled from Xtend code) and Java types in order to ensure it’s possible to transpile to JavaScript and objects are serializable. However, when just using Xtend on the backend of a Google App Engine, you don’t need a recent version. However, you do need the “unsign” a couple of Xtend-related JAR files because otherwise the hosted/deployed server will trip over the signing meta data in them.

To use Xtend in a Google Web Application, do the following:

  1. After creating the Web Application project, create an Xtend class anywhere in the Java src/ folder.
  2. Hover over the class name to see the available quickfixes. Alternatively, use the right mouse click menu on the corresponding error in the Problems view.
  3. Invoke the “Add Xtend libs to classpath” quickfix by selecting it in the hover or by selecting the error in the Problems view, pressing Ctrl/Cmd 1 and clicking Finish.
  4. At this point, I usually edit the .classpath file to have the xtend-gen/ Java source folder and Xtend library appear after the src/ folder and App Engine SDK library entry.
  5. Locate the com.google.guava, org.eclipse.xtext.xbase.lib and org.eclipse.xtend.lib JAR files in the plugins/ folder of the Eclipse installation.
  6. Unsign these (see below) and place the unsigned versions in the war/WEB-INF/lib/ folder of the Web Applcation project.

Now, you’re all set to use Xtend in a GAE project and deploy it to the hosted server. In another post, I’ll discuss the benefits of Xtend’s rich strings in this context.

Unsigning the Xtend libs

The following (Bourne) shell script (which kinda sucks because of the use of the cd commands) will strip a JAR file of its signing meta data and create a new JAR file which has the same file name but with ‘-unsigned’ postfixed before the extension. It takes one argument: the name of the JAR file without file extension (.jar).

#!/bin/sh
unzip $1.jar -d tmp_jar/
cd tmp_jar
rm META-INF/ECLIPSE_.*
cp MANIFEST.MF tmp_MANIFEST.MF
awk '/^$/ {next} match($0, "(^Name:)|(^SHA1-Digest:)") == 0 {print $0}' tmp_MANIFEST.MF > MANIFEST.MF
# TODO  remove empty lines (1st clause isn't working...)
rm tmp_MANIFEST.MF

zip -r ../$1-unsigned.jar .
cd ..
rm -rf tmp_jar/

# Run this for the following JARs (with version and qualifier):
#    com.google.guava
#    org.eclipse.xtend.lib
#    org.eclipse.xtext.xbase.lib

Note that using the signed Xtend libs (placing them directly in war/WEB-INF/lib/) isn’t a problem for the local development server, but it is for the (remote) hosted server. It took me a while initially to figure out that the cryptic, uninformative error message in the logs (available through the dashboard) actually mean that GAE has a problem with signed JARs.

And yes, I know the unsign shell script is kind-of ugly because of the use of the cd command, but hey: what gives…

Categories: Xtend(2) Tags:

A trick for speeding up Xtend building

September 24, 2012 Leave a comment

I love Xtend and use it as much as possible. For code bases which are completely under my control, I use it for everything that’s not an interface or something that really needs to have inner classes and such.

As much as I love Xtend, the performance of the compilation (or “transpilation”) to Java source is not quite on the level of the JDK’s Java compiler. That’s quite impossible given the amount of effort that has gone into the Java compiler accumulated over the years and the fact that the team behind Xtend is only a few FTE (because they have to take care of Xtext as well). Nevertheless, things can get out of hand relatively quickly and leave you with a workspace which needs several minutes to fully build  and already tens of seconds for an incremental build, triggered by a change in one Xtend file.

This performance (or lack thereof) for incremental builds is usually caused by a lot of Xtend source  interdependencies. Xtend is an Xtext DSL and, as such, is aware of the fact that a change in on file can make it necessary for another file to be reconsidered for compilation as well. However, Xtend’s incremental build implementation is not (yet?) always capable of deciding when this is the case and when not, so it chooses to add all depending Xtend files to the build and so forth – a learned word for this is “transitive build behavior”.

A simple solution is to program against interfaces. You’ve probably already heard this as a best practice before and outside of the context of Xtend, so it already has merits outside of compiler performance. In essence, the trick is to extract a Java interface from an Xtend class, “demote” that Xtend class to an implementation of that interface and use dependency injection to inject an instance of the Xtend implementation class. This works because the Java interface “insulates” the implementation from its clients, so when you change the implementation, but not the interface, Xtend doesn’t trigger re-transpilation of Xtend client classes. Usually, only the Xtend implementation class is re-transpiled.

In the following I’ll assume that we’re running inside a Guice container, so that the Xtend class is never instantiated explicitly – this is typical for generators and model extensions, anyway. Perform the following steps:

  1. Rename the Xtend class to reflect it’s the implementation class, by renaming both the file and the class declaration itself, without using the Rename Refactoring. This will break compilation for all the clients.
  2. Find the transpiled Java class corresponding to the Xtend class in the xtend-gen/ folder. This is easiest through the Ctrl/Cmd-Shift-T (Open Type) short cut.
  3. Invoke the Extract Interface Refactoring on that one and extract it into a Java interface in the same package, but with the original name of the Xtend class.
  4. Have the Xtend implementation class implement the Java interface. Compilation should become unbroken at this point.
  5. Add a Guice annotation to the Java interface:
    @com.google.inject.ImplementedBy(...class literal for the Xtext implementation class...)
    

Personally, I like to rename the Xtend implementation class to have the Impl postfix. If I have more Xtend classes together, I tend to bundle them up into a impl sub package.

Of course, every time the effective interface of the implementation class changes, you’ll have to adapt the corresponding interface as well – prompted by compilation errors popping up. I tend to apply this technique only as soon as the build times become a hindrance.

Categories: Xtend(2) Tags: , ,

Groovy-type builders and JSON initializers in Xtend

September 3, 2012 Leave a comment

One of the nicer features of dynamic languages like Ruby, Groovy, etc. is the possibility to easily implement builders which are constructs to build up tree-like structures in a very succinct a syntactically noise free way. You can find some Groovy examples here – have a special look at the HTML example. Earlier, Sven Efftinge has written a blog on the implementing the same type of builders using Xtend. My blog post will expand a little on his post by providing the actual code and another example.

The main reason that builders come naturally in dynamic languages is that metaprogramming allows adding “keywords” to the language without the need to actually define them in the form of functions. In the case of HTML, these “keywords” are the tag names. Statically-typed languages like Java or Xtend do not have that luxury (or “luxury” as the construct can easily be misused) so we’ll have to do a little extra.

The HTML example

You’ll find Sven’s original example reproduced in HtmlDocumentExample . Note that because of the point mentioned above, we need to have compile-time representations of the HTML DOM elements we’re using. Sven has written these manually but I’m afraid that I’m lazy to do that so I opted for a generative approach. Apart from that, the example works exactly the same, so I’ll refer to his original blog for the magic details – some of which I’ll re-iterate for the JSON example below.

Generation

Some basic HTML DOM element types are provided by the BaseDomElements file. Note two nice features of Xtend 2.3+: one file can hold multiple Xtend classes and the use of the @Data annotation as a convenient way to define POJOs – or should those be called POXOs? 😉 The POJOs for the other DOM elements are generated by the GenerateDomInfrastructure main class: note they are generated as POXOs which are then transpiled into Java. After running the GenerateDomInfrastructure main class and refreshing the Eclipse project, the  HelpDocumentExample class should compile.

A JSON example

You can find the JSON example in JsonResponseExample. For convenience and effect, I’ll reproduce it here:

class JsonResponseExample {

    @Inject extension JsonBuilder

    def example() {
        object(
            "dev"        => true,
            "myArray"    => array("foo", "bar"),
            "nested"     => object("answer" => 42)
        )
    }

}

To be able to compile this example, you’ll need my fork of Douglas Crockford’s Java JSON library with the main differences being that it’s wrapped as an Eclipse plug-in/OSGi bundle and it’s (as properly as manageable) generified. In addition to the GitHub repo, you can also directly download the JAR file.

As with the HTML example, the magic resides in the line which has a JsonBuilder Xtend class Guice-injected as an extension, meaning that you can use the functions defined in that class without needing to explicitly refer to it. This resembles a static import but without the functions/methods needing to be static themselves. The JsonBuilder class has two factory functions: object(..) builds a JSONObject from key-value pairs and array(..) builds a JSONArray from the given objects.

The fun part lies in the overloading of the binary => operator by means of  the operator_doubleArrow(..) function which simply returns a Pair object suitable for consumption by the object(..) factory function. This allows us to use the “key => value” syntax demonstrated in the example. Note that the => operator has no pre-existing meaning in Xtend – the makers of Xtend have been kind enough to provide hooks for a number of such “user-definable” operators: see the documentation.

I’m still trying to find a nice occasion to use the so-called “spaceship” or “Elvis” operators: now that would be positively…groovy 😉

Postscript

I failed to notice earlier that Xtend already has an -> operator which does exactly the same thing that our => operator does. Also, the “Elvis” ?: operator already has a meaning: “x ?: y” returns x if it’s non-null and y otherwise. This makes for a convenient way to set up default values. You’ll find both overloading definitions in the org.eclipse.xtext.xbase.lib.ObjectExtensions class.

Categories: Xtend(2)

Polymorphic dispatch in Xtend

August 3, 2012 1 comment

Polymorphic dispatch (or http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple_dispatch or multimethods as its also called) is a programming language construct which chooses a code path based on runtime types instead of types that are inferred at compile. The poor man’s method of achieving such behavior would be to litter your code with prose like this:

if( x instanceof TypeA ) { (x as TypeA).exprA }
else if( x instanceof TypeB ) { (x as TypeB).exprB }
else ...

Xtend 2.x offers two much better constructs to do polymorphic dispatching:

  1. Through the use of the dispatch modifier for function defs – this construct is Xtend’s “official” polymorphic dispatch.
  2. Through the use of the switch statement and referring to types instead of cases.

These are better than the poor man’s method because they are declarative, i.e.: they express intent much more clearly and succinctly. Though both constructs have a lot in common, there are some marked differences and Best Practices for safe guarding type safety which I’ll discuss in the blog.

The example

Consider the following Xtend code – note that the syntax coloring is lacking a bit, but WordPress doesn’t fully understand Xtend – …yet…. Also note that since Xtend2.3 you can have more than one Xtend class in one file.

class CommonSuperType { ... }
class TypeA extends CommonSuperType { ... }
class TypeB extends CommonSuperType { ... }
class TypeC extends CommonSuperType { ... }
class UnrelatedType { ... }
class Handler {

  def dispatch foo(TypeA it) { it.exprA }
  def dispatch foo(TypeB it) { it.exprB }

  def bar(CommonSuperType it) {
    switch it {
      TypeA: it.exprA
      TypeB: it.exprB
    }
  }
}

For simplicity’s sake, let’s assume that exprA and exprB both return an int. The Xtend compiler generates two public methods in the Java class Handler – one for foo, one for bar. Both of these have the same signature: int f(CommonSuperType), where f = foo or bar. In addition, for each foo dispatch function, Xtend generates a public method with signature int _foo(t), where t=TypeA or TypeB – note the prefixed underscore. The actual polymorphic dispatch then happens in “combined” foo(CommonSuperType) method, actually through the previously demonstrated poor man’s method.

By the way: a user-friendly way to inspect the “combined” method is the Outline which will group the dispatch functions belonging together under the combined signature.

Note that the foo and bar method ends up with CommonSuperType as the type of its parameter. This is because CommonSuperType is the most specific common super type of TypeA and TypeB – deftly implied by the name – and Xtend infers that as the parameter’s type for the “combined” method. In general, Xtend will compute the most specific common super type across all dispatch functions, on a per-argument basis. In case of the bar method we declared ourselves what the parameter type is.

As demonstration, add the following code to the Handler class and see what happens:

  def dispatch foo(TypeC it) { it.exprC }

(Assume that exprC again returns an int.)

The generated foo and bar methods are functionally nearly identical, the difference being that foo explicitly throws an IllegalArgumentException mentioning the unhandled parameter type(s) in its message, in case you called it with something that is a CommonSuperType but neither of TypeA nor of TypeB. The bar method does no such thing and simply falls through the switch, returning the appropriate default value: typically null but 0 in our int-case. To remedy that, you’ll have to add a default case which throws a similar exception, like so:

  def bar(CommonSuperType it) {
    switch it {
      TypeA: it.exprA
      TypeB: it.exprB
      default:
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("don't how to handle sub type " + it.^class.simpleName)
    }
  }

In case you already have sensible default case, you’re basically out of luck.

Potential mistakes

Both approaches have their respective (dis-)advantages which I’ll list comprehensively below. In both cases, though, it’s relatively easy to make programmers’ mistakes. The most common and obvious ones are:

  1. The parameter type of the “combined” foo method is inferred, so if you add a dispatch function having a parameter type which does not extend CommonSuperType, then the foo method will wind up with a more general parameter type – potentially Object. This means that the foo method will accept a lot more types than usually intended and failing miserably (through a thrown IllegalArgumentException) on most of them. This is especially dangerous for public (which happens to be the default visibility!) function defs.
  2. Xtend will not warn you at editor/compile time about the “missing” case TypeC: it’s a sub type of CommonSuperType but not of TypeA nor of TypeB. At runtime, the bar method will simply fall through and return 0.
  3. The return type of the combined method is also inferred as the most specific common super type of the various return types – again, potentially Object. This is usually much less of a problem because that inferred type is checked against the parameter type of clients of the combined method.

This shows that these constructs require us to do a little extra to safe guard the type safety we so appreciate in Xtend.

Advantages and disadvantages of both constructs

We list some advantages and disadvantages of both constructs. Advantages of the dispatch construct:

  • Provides more visual code space. This is useful if the handling of the separate types typically needs more than 1 line of code.
  • Explicit handling of unhandled cases at runtime.

Disadvantages of the dispatch construct:

  • Automagically infers parameter types of the “combined” method as the most common super types. In case of a programmer error, this may be (much) too wide.
  • Takes up more visual code space/more syntactic noise.

Advantages of the switch construct:

  • Takes up less visual code space. This is useful if the handling of the separate types doesn’t need more than one line of code.
  • It’s a single expression, so you can use it as such inside the function it’s living in. Also, you can precompute “stuff” that’s useful for more than one case.

Disadvantages of the switch construct:

  • Fall-through of unhandled cases at runtime, resulting in an (often) non-sensical return value. You have to add an explicit default case to detect fall-through.

Mixing polymorphic and ordinary dispatch

Since Xtend version 2.3, you are warned about dispatch functions having a compatible signature as a non-dispatch function and vice versa. As an example, consider the following addition to the Handler class:

  def foo(TypeC it) { it.exprC  }
  def foo(UnrelatedType it) { it.someExpr }

Here, exprC again returns an int, but someExpr may return anything. Note that both functions are not of the dispatch persuasion.

The first line is flagged with the warning “Dispatch method has same name and number of parameters as non-dispatch method”, which is a just warning in my book. However, this warning is also given for the second line, as well as for the first two foo functions. (Note that the warnings are also given with only one of these extra functions present.) In that case, it’s not always a helpful warning but it does riddle your code file with warnings.

To get rid of the warnings, I frequently make use of the following technique:

  • “Hide” all dispatch functions by giving them (and only these) an alternate name. My personal preference is to postfix the name with an underscore, since the extra _ it’s visually inconspicuous enough to not dilute the intended meaning. Also, give them private visibility to prevent prying eyes.
  • Create an additional function with the same signature as the “combined” method for the dispatch functions, calling those.

The net result is that you get rid of the warnings, because there’s no more mixture of dispatch and non-dispatch functions with compatible signatures. Another upshot is that the signature of the “combined” method is now explicitly checked by the additional function calling it – more type safety, yeah! Of course, a disadvantage is that you need an extra function but that typically only is one line of code.

In the context of our example, the original two foo functions are replaced by the following code:

  def foo(CommonSuperType it) { foo_ }

  def private dispatch foo_(TypeA it) { it.exprA }
  def private dispatch foo_(TypeB it) { it.exprB }
Categories: The How, Xtend(2)